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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-9

Current trends in pathogenesis, management, bacteriology, and antibiotic resistance in deep neck space infections: An institutional review


1 Department of Otolaryngology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Medical Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Harsimran Tiwana
Department of Otolaryngology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aiao.aiao_19_19

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Context: Deep neck space infection is a potentially morbid condition characterized by pus collection in various potential and true spaces of the neck. With this study, we attempt to highlight, the changes in etiological factors in the current scenario, and management protocols for deep neck space infections. Furthermore, we studied the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in isolated microorganisms. Aims: To study the etiology, antibiotic sensitivity pattern, and management of deep neck space infections in adults and pediatric patients. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing surgical management of deep neck space infections at a tertiary care institute in India. Subjects and Methods: Analysis of records of 222 patients who underwent surgical management for deep neck space infections was done. All the patients received empirical antibiotic therapy within 30 min of hospital admission. The patients treated with conservative management were excluded from the study. Cultures and antibiotic sensitivities were obtained for patients undergoing surgical management. Results: Dental infection (52%) was the most common predisposing factor for deep neck space infections in adults followed by diabetes mellitus (28.2%). Multispace involvement was the most common presentation followed by parapharyngeal space involvement. The majority of the cultures were sterile (42.6%). The most common pathogen on cultures was Staphylococcus aureus (13.1% in adults and 47.4% in pediatric age group). The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 22.7%, which was lower than what has been observed in the previous studies. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were found to have high incidence of resistance to cefotaxime (50%), cefepime (38.5%), and ceftazidime (75%). Complications were seen in 4.5% (n = 10) of patients with an overall mortality of 0.9% (n = 2). Conclusions: In view of comparatively lower incidence of MRSA, combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid along with clindamycin is a reasonable first-line antibiotic therapy for deep neck space infections. In patients with diabetes, amikacin or piperacillin-tazobactam can be added to the regime, as there is a higher incidence of infection by K. pneumoniae. Surgical management remains the mainstay of treatment and is associated with improved outcome.


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